The number of muscular contractions is directly proportional to the nervous impulse (Hall, 1998). On the other hand, other insects beat their wings faster than the time it takes a neuron to generate an action potential for the conduction of stimuli. The muscles associated with insects that fly at such high speeds contract more rapidly independent of nervous impulses except for the initial signal for flight and the subsequent landing signal. These powerful and rapid muscular contractions require considerable metabolic energy for such demanding activity.
The evolution process associated with this type of actively flying insect resulted in a minimal number of flight muscles on a lean insect body for both sustained flight schedules and energy conservation. The insects have to possess a streamlined body shape to remain afloat as well as make all of the important maneuvers associated with their active flying. This physical shape allows for the aerodynamic geometry to be attained in the wing morphology which permits for the steady flow of air currents through the wing (Hutchins, 2006). As such, the insect can fly up and down as well as sideways.
Hormonal control of flight is equally feasible. For the insects to distribute the metabolic energy from their oxidized fuels to the flight muscles, hormones are involved. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are utilized after their metabolic oxidation in the hemocoel. Oxidation is provided through the open circulatory system through diffusion to the metabolic pathways located in the flight muscles (Thomas, Reynolds & Woiwood, 2001). Additional fuel reserves are obtained from the fat storage tissues.
Normally, immense fuel reserves in the hemolymph and glucose present in the flight muscles are oxidized to propel the insect during short-lived flights. When the flight takes a longer time, fats are utilized from their energy reserves to supplement the extra energy requirements under the control of the endocrine system (Brodsky, 2009). Evolutionary changes that brought about the development of insect wings, therefore, took into account the physiological processes that are required to initiate the flight as well as regulate it.
As such, the evolution of wings has enabled insects apart from other invertebrates to develop an elaborate flight regime for their survival. The development of wings through the modification of their legs should have taken advantage of the elaborate muscular, nervous, and circulatory systems. It is also possible that ancestral insects evolved wings necessarily from primitive body structures independent of the body systems currently known to sustain and control modern insect flight. However, no scientific findings have been recorded to support a viable insect ancestry.
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