PROGRESS IN THE STRUGGLE FOR MORE MEANINGFUL DEVELOPMENT: BRAZIL
There are two faces of development in Brazil. World-competitive industry coexists with
stagnant,protected sectors. Modern agriculture coexists with low-productivity traditional practices.
ButBrazil is amid a spurt of economic development that might herald a lasting transformation for a
country often considered synonymous with inequality and unmet potential. Economic growth has
returned, health and education have improved markedly, the country’s democratization has proved
durable, and inequalityâ€”among the highest in the worldâ€”has at long last started to fall. But there is still
a long way to go to achieve genuine development in Brazil.
Many Brazilians have been frustrated with the uneven pace of development. They are known for
tellingself-deprecating jokes such as “Brazil is the countryof the futureâ€”and always will be.” Brazil has
evenbeen cited as having experienced”growth without development.” But despite massive inequities,
Brazil has made economic and social progress and should not be tarred with the same brush as
Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, orGabon, which have had less social development for their levels of growth and
investment. Extremely high economic inequality and social divisions severely threaten further progress
in Brazil. But there are growing reasons to hope that Brazil may overcome its legacy of inequality so
that the country may yet join the ranks of the developed countries.
Brazil is particularly interested because its growth performance from the 1960s through the early 1980s
was the best in Latin America, with at least some parallels with East Asian export policy and
implementation. However, Brazil had a more significant role for state-owned enterprises, much lower
education and other social expenditures, and much higher inflation.
Brazil’s performance is followed widely in the developing world, as it is the largest and most populous
country in Latin America; with some 193 million people, it is the world’s fifth-largest country in both area
and population. Brazil is consolidating its role as the lead country in the Latin America andCaribbean
region; it is a vital member of the G20leading economies addressing the aftermath of the financial
crisis; and one of a group of developing countries pushing for fairer international trade rules. It is one of four influential countries referred to by financial analysts of emerging markets as the”BRICs” (Brazil,
Russia, India, and China).
Although over two decades of military rule ended in Brazil in 1985, an ongoing debt crisis,years of
stagnant incomes, and extremely high inflation followed. It took drastic policies to reduce inflation, and
revenues stagnated in the aftermath. The 1980s and the 1990s have been described as “lost decades”
for development. So the recent signs of palpable progress, especially since about 2004, have been
welcomed with relief and growing enthusiasm among many Brazilians. Although the country remains
politically divided between the centre-left and the centre-right, astriking convergence has been
achieved on policies agreed to be necessary for equitable and sustained growth, ranging from active
poverty reduction programs to relatively orthodox monetary policies. The economy has been booming
due to commodity exports to China, including soybeans and steel. One persistent worry is whether the
economy could continue to increase if commodity prices, which have been much higher in recent years,
revert to their long-term trends for the decline.
But despite the nation’s early and now resumed growth, other development indicators in Brazil lagged,
eventually undermining growth prospects. It would seem that Brazil benefited from much higher
incomes than CentralAmerican countries and spared the destructivenessof civil war, it would seem,
should have been in a much better position to fight extreme poverty and improve economic equity and
social indicators. Instead, the country has continued to see a higher percentage of its population in
poverty than expected for an upper-middle-income country. Despite some recent improvements,Brazil
remains one of the countries with the highest levels of inequality globally. So how shouldBrazil’s
development performance be evaluated and future priorities chosen?
Income and Growth
Growth is generally necessary, though not sufficient,for achieving development. In 2007, Brazil’s per
capita income was $5,860. Using purchasing power parity, its average income was $9,270,about oneï¿¾fifth of that of the United States but more than eight times that of Haiti (World Bank data).
Growth has been erratic, with substantial swings over time. Data for gross domestic product growth
(GDP) per capita are sometimes presented for the periods 1965â€“1990, when for Brazil, it was 1.4%,and
for 1990â€“2000, it was 1.5%. This appears to suggest remarkable stability. But the former figures
combine the booming years from 1967 to 1980and Brazil’s “lost decade of development” of the1980s.
Nevertheless, performance through this period was still better than most other countries ofLatin
America. And in 2000â€“2008, annual per capita growth rose to 2.6% (World Bank data).
Brazil has had an export policy stressing incentives for manufacturing exports and protections for
domestic industry, with numerous parallels with Taiwan and South Korea in their earlier formative
stages. Its percentage share of manufactured exports in total exports grew dramatically, reaching 57%
in 1980, although it dropped markedly during the lost decade of the1980s. Although the share of
exports increased again to get 54% by 2000, these still essentially represented processed foods and
ores. By 2007, this figure had fallen to 47%, reflecting increased commodity prices; manufactured
exports also continued to rise. Brazil’s prolonged status as ahighly indebted country was asubstantial
drag on growth performance, as were continued problems with infrastructure. Today,however, the
Industrial, Technological and ForeignTrade Policy (PITCE) program is actively working on upgrading
the quality and competitiveness ofBrazilian industry.
High and growing taxes may have also slowed formal-sector employment growth. The overall tax
burden increased from about 25% of gross national income to nearly 40% in the decade from 1993
to2004. Payroll taxes are high, and as many as half ofBrazil’s labour force now works in the informal
sector,where taxes may be avoided (and labour rights and regulation circumvented).
However, Ricardo Hausmann, Dani Rodrik, and AndrÃ©s Velasco argue that Brazil does not lack
productive investment ideas, nor is concern about government behaviour the factor holding back
investment. Using their decision tree framework to identify the most binding constraints on economic
growth, Hausmann, Rodrik, andVelasco argue that Brazil has high investment returns and is most
constrained by a lack of savings to finance its productive opportunities at reasonable interest rates. In
raising domestic savings, Hausmannhas emphasized the importance of “creating a financiallyviable
state that does not over-borrow, over-taxor under-invest.”
Technology transfer is critical to more rapid growth, competing internationally, and beginning to catch
up with advanced countries. Brazil has made notable progress. The government is cutting the edge of
agricultural research and extension in commercially successful export crops such as citrus and
soybeans. After a disastrous attempt to protect the computer industry in the 1980s was abandoned,
Brazil has begun to see the expansion of the software industry, as also seen in India. But Brazil has not
absorbed technology to the degree that East Asian countries have.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!