The Lung Diseases of the Respiratory System

Obstructive lung diseases characterized by breathing shortness cause difficulties in expelling out all the air present inside the lungs. Exhaled air moves more slowly than usual due to injury to the lungs or constriction of the airways passage inside the lungs. As a result, a substantial quantity of air could remain in the lungs, even after the complete exhalation. Breathing becomes more difficult with obstructive lung disease, especially after increased exercise or effort. As the pace of breathing rises, there is a short time left to expel out the remaining oxygen to perform the inhalation. The following are the most prevalent causes of obstructive lung disease:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory illness caused by exposure to chemicals that aggravate and cause damage to the liver for the long term. Smoking cigarettes, as well as other breathed contaminants, are examples of these chemicals. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the two forms of COPD. In chronic bronchitis, infected airways get narrowed and produce copious mucus, making breathing difficult. The alveoli of the lungs are damaged in emphysema, which obstructs the absorption of oxygen, causing the patient to fall short of breath.

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Asthma is a condition associated with the irritation and swelling of the inner conducting airways. The intake of airborne particles also causes it. Physical exercise and respiratory illnesses may also have a role. During an asthma attack, inhaling irritates the affected airways. The Smooth muscles present in the passage airway wall contract, causing bronchoconstriction and excessive mucus production. The blocked airways limit normal airflow into and out of the lungs. During an asthma incident, patients will wheeze, cough, and have trouble breathing.

Bronchiectasis is a chronic disease in which thickening in the bronchial wall occurs due to inflammation and infection.

Restrictive Lung Diseases
A person suffering from restrictive lung disease is unable to fill air within their lungs. As a result, their lungs are unable to inflate. The most common cause of restrictive lung disease is a disorder that causes rigidity in the lungs. In some situations, the expansion of the lungs restricts due to rigidity of the chest wall, weak muscles, or damaged nerves. There are two types of restrictive lung diseases, which may occur due to intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. Restrictive lung disorders are caused by inherent factors within the lungs, such as tissue death caused by inflammation or toxins. Extrinsic lung illnesses, on the other hand, are caused by problems that originate outside the lungs. The following are some of the conditions that might lead to restrictive lung disease, which are as follows:

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an interstitial lung disease that predominantly affects the interstitium (the tissue and space surrounding the air sacs of the lungs) rather than the blood vessels.

Pulmonary sarcoidosis is a kind of sarcoidosis that affects the lungs. In the lungs, it produces tiny masses of inflammatory cells. Granulomas are tumors that can impair how the lungs operate. Granulomas usually heal and go away on their own. However, if they do not heal, the lung tissue might become irritated, scarred, and rigid.

Obese persons are more likely to suffer from hypoventilation syndrome, which is another restrictive respiratory condition. The condition causes a reduced supply of oxygen in the blood, which results in significant and life-threatening health problems if not treated.

Other Lung Diseases of the Respiratory System
Apart from obstructive and restrictive lung diseases, there are other pathological diseases as well which are associated with the lungs and the respiratory system. Some of them are as follows:

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is an uncommon illness characterized by an abnormal buildup of granular phospholipid proteinaceous materials in the air spaces of lungs, resulting in increased dyspnea.

The condition of pulmonary fluid overload is a severe consequence of hyper infusion and impaired balance of electrolytes. If the disease continues over a period, the lungs develop significant edema over alveolar and interstitial spaces, as well as fibroplasia.

Developmental problems include respiratory hypoplasia and pleural sequester. Respiratory hypoplasia is commonly associated with fetal urogenital abnormalities such as urethral aplasia. The aberrant development of a lung segment, separated from either of the lungs, is referred to as pleural sequestration.


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