Fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, and organogenesis are the process that takes place in the process of animal development. Gastrulation is the most characteristic event that takes place during the third week of gestation. Gastrulation is the reformation of a single-layered embryo into a multi-layered or tri-layered embryo. The three germ layers are the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. The outermost layer is known as ectoderm, the middle layer is termed as mesoderm, and the innermost layer is called as endoderm. During gastrulation, additional cell divisions occur and the establishment of germ layers takes place through various processes. Many cells undergo cytoskeleton changes, specific changes in germ in actin microfilaments, and eventually take a new shape in the interior of the embryo.
Before the process of gastrulation, amorulla is formed from the single celled zygote which divides multiple times. Morulla is a ball of many cells formed by division. The layers of cells formed during gastrulation classify the protozoan animals from metazoan animals. Also, it specifies the point in animal development that the cells which are located inside are separated from the external cells that will communicate with the environment. The first process of gastrulation is marked by the formation of a primitive streak on the epiblast surface. The primitive streak is a structure that looks like a narrow groove with bulging regions on both sides at the caudal end of the embryonic disc, it appears in a 15 to the 16-day embryo. In the primitive streak, the cephalic end, the primitive node, comprised of a slightly elevated area around the small primitive pit.
The primitive streak has a primitive node, primitive pit, and primitive groove. After the production of the primitive streak, the embryo possesses the craniocaudal axis, dorsal surface, and ventral surfaces and right and left sides. In the fourth weekend, the primitive streak exhibits the regressive changes, shrinks rapidly, and disappears soon.
Mechanism of gastrulation:
The epiblast cells move toward the direction of the primitive streak. When the epiblast cells reach the primitive streak, they become flask-shaped, move from the epiblast, and moves beneath it. This type of inward motion is called invagination. After the invagination of cells, few cells displace the hypoblast, forming the embryonic endoderm, and the remaining cells move to occupy between the epiblast and newly formed endoderm to form mesoderm. Other remaining epiblast cells then form the ectoderm. During gastrulation most germ layers are formed from the epiblast and all the embryo tissues and organs is formed by the cells of this layer. As most of the cells migrate between the layers of epiblast and hypoblast, they start to spread cranially and laterally. Then they move beyond the disc margin and exhibits contact with the extraembryonic mesoderm around the yolk sac and amnion.
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