Classes of Glucose transporters:
The glucose transporters are categorized into two different classes such as
(i) Sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLTs): These proteins are expressed by the intestinal lumen and renal proximal tubule cells and transport the glucose by symport mechanism.
It facilitates the glucose transport coupled with sodium ions actively against an electrochemical gradient in the nephrons and in small intestine cells.
In humans, there are 12 members of the SGLT family that are involved in the transport of anions, vitamins, fatty acids, and glucose. Glucose transport in the small intestinal cell is primarily achieved by SGLT1. It transports sodium-glucose molecules in the ratio of 2:1.
However, SGLT 2 is present in the proximal tubule cells and aids glucose re-absorption from the renal fluid as well as impedes the glucose elimination in the urine. It transports sodium-glucose molecules in the ratio of 1:1.
SGLT3 acts as a glucose sensor in muscle, kidney, hepatocytes, spleen, and in small intestine cells. SGLT 4, SGLT5, and SGLT6 transports inositol, thyroid iodide, and multivitamins
(ii) Facilitative glucose transporters: These are the second group of glucose transporters that transport the glucose molecules bidirectionally in cells and tissues by facilitated diffusion mechanism.
It has one substrate binding site exposed to the interior of the cell and other exposed to the exterior. When the glucose binds to one site, induces the conformational change that results in the transport of glucose from one side to the other.
GLUT family transporter proteins:
GLUT family transporter proteins are classified into three different classes such as class I, class II, and class III. Glucose metabolism is determined by specific glucose transporter isoform due to its substrate specificity, tissue expression pattern, transport kinetics, and regulated expression in various physiological conditions. Class I transporter proteins: GLUT1 to GLUT4 glucose transporters are included in the class I family.
GLUT1 is a bidirectional glucose transporter that is widely distributed in both fetal and adult tissues. A high level of GLUT1 protein expression is observed in erythrocytes, brain, cornea, and endothelial cells. It uptake the glucose at the basal level and maintains the respiration. The level of GLUT1 increases by reduced glucose level and decreases by increased glucose level.
GLUT2 is a bidirectional glucose transporter that is expressed in hepatocytes, small intestine, renal tubular cells, and pancreatic beta cells. GLUT2 transports the monosaccharides such as glucose, fructose, and galactose from the small intestine into the portal circulation. In hepatocytes, it is essential to uptake the glucose molecule for glycolysis and glycogenesis. In pancreatic beta cells, it facilitates the insulin release. GLUT2 uptake the glucose molecule at low affinity.
GLUT3 is a bidirectional glucose transporter that is expressed in the placenta and neurons. GLUT1 and GLUT3 allow the glucose to cross the blood-brain barrier.
Similarly, GLUT4 is a bidirectional glucose transporter that is expressed in myocytes, cardio myocytes, and adipocytes. It maintains the intake of basal level glucose without insulin.
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