Many theories are suggesting how the transmission from monkeys to humans occurred but the theory of the â€˜hunterâ€™ is the most widely accepted.
The source of the HIV infection in humans was a form of chimpanzee in West Africa. They claim that the chimpanzee form of the immunodeficiency virus called simian immunodeficiency virus or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and transformed into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and their blood was exposed to the contaminated blood of chimpanzees. So, in this case, as a result of the killing and eating of chimpanzees, or their blood getting into cuts or wounds on individuals during hunting, SIVcpz was transferred to humans. The virus steadily spread across Africa over decades, and later into other parts of the world. There are four main HIV strain groups (M, N, O, and P), each with a slightly different genetic make-up. This supports the hunter theory because it would have evolved in a slightly different way inside the human body each time SIV moved from a chimpanzee to a human and created a slightly different strain. This explains the existence of more than one strain of HIV.
Using the earliest known sample of HIV, scientists have been able to establish a ‘family-tree’ ancestry of HIV transmission, helping them to discover where HIV originated. Their studies have suggested that the first human transmission of SIV to HIV took place in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo), around 1920. Normal SIV infection does not cause a fatal disease in most nonhuman primate species. Non-human SIVs possess a nef gene that down-regulates class I expression of CD3, CD4, and MHC; thus most non-human SIVs do not induce immunodeficiency; however the HIV-1 nef gene has lost its ability to down-regulate CD3, resulting in immune activation and apoptosis characteristic of chronic HIV infection. The common methods that were used for this study are:
PCR amplification and sequence analysis of SIVcpzUS.
PCR amplification and sequence analysis of chimpanzee mitochondrial DNA.
Sequence comparisons. To understand the full extent of natural SIVcpz infection and the incidence of zoonotic transmission to humans, it would be important to screen free-living adult chimpanzees from the corresponding geographic locations of all four subspecies, as well as human populations. These studies would entail the cooperation of conservationists of chimpanzees, local inhabitants, and virologists with a keen knowledge of the security of this endangered species.
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