The basic constructional parts of a DC machine are as follows:
Yoke: The outer frame of the machine called Yoke. It is made up of Cast iron or steel. Yoke gives the mechanical strength and protection from the surroundings to the machine. In simple words, the outer body of the DC generator.
Poles and pole shoes: Poles are used to carry the field windings, which produce the magnetic field lines in the rotor component. Poles are bolted or welded with the yoke. Pole shoes are reverted at the head portion of poles and it ensures the uniform spread of the magnetic field lines.
Field winding: The poles wounded by the copper conductors (coils) collectively is called as field winding. The field windings are supplied with current which generates magnetic flux in which the armature rotates to generate current.
Armature core: Armature core is the rotor of the DC machine which is made of thin laminated sheets, designed in circular shape to reduce eddy current and hysteresis losses. It provides mechanical support to bind the armature winding to the shaft.
Armature winding: The armature winding is the main current carrying winding which is the bundle of copper coil resting in the armature slots. For DC machines, there are two types of windings as follows based on the end connections and commutator connections of the conductor.
Lap Winding â€“ Used for high current applications
Wave Winding â€“ Used for high voltage applications
Commutator and brushes: Commutator is a set of copper segments attached to the shaft. The number of copper segments should be equal to the number of armature coils. Brushes are made either of carbon or graphite and are connected to commutator. The Commutator-Brush arrangement is physically connected to the armature winding and its purpose is to collect the current generated in armature conductors.
Working principle of a DC generator
The principle involved in the working of the DC Generator is the Faradayâ€™s Law of Electromagnetic Induction. It states that when a conductor is placed in a magnetic field with varying flux, an e.m.f. is induced inside the conductor. The electromagnetic field is produced by the field coils. Induced e.m.f. is generated in the armature conductors as they rotate into the field. When the circuit is closed current flows into the circuit. The direction of induced current can be determined by using Flemingâ€™s right-hand rule.
Uses of DC Generators
DC Generators can be made to function as a motor by reversing the direction of the power flow. This feature enables us to use it as an alternator-rectifier. They can be used for charging batteries and also in electrolytic systems.
DC is in use for some special applications and where the DC equipment is still in operation though alternate has an option of a step up or down. Shunt generators are used to supply constant loads. They are used for battery charging, for supplying the fields of synchronous machines and for separately excited DC machines.
Series generators give an ideal usage as boosters for adding voltage to the transmission lines and to compensate for the line drop.
Compound generators help in maintaining better voltage regulation and hence they find usage wherein constant voltage is required.
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