The objectives of civil law are to resolve conflicts between parties through peaceful solutions, which can be done through a trial in civil court or through alternative resolution methods such as arbitration and mediation. civil law is used to resolve conflicts related to business disputes. It also covers areas related to family matters such as divorce, child custody, property issues, and so on.
The objectives of criminal law are to maintain law and order in a society, or a state or country; it is also to protect the life and liberty of the citizens and punish the offender. The basic principle of criminal liability is imposed on an offender only after all the ingredients of an offense are proved beyond a reasonable doubt. In some cases, a grave or serious punishment for the crime has long-term effects and consequences on the convicted person.
Types of Civil and Criminal Laws:
Civil law mostly consists of non-violent disputes among two or more individuals or organizations or individuals and organizations. It not only consists of laws related to family or any personal injury but also contains laws like consumer laws: that deal with rights and complaints of a consumer, employment laws: that deal with any dispute arising out of the an agreement or a contract between an employer and employee, or any discrimination or violation of any rights at place of work. Other various types of civil laws are as follows:
Breach of Contract: In a contract where one party fails to fulfill the terms and conditions against the other party, it results in the breach of contract for which compensation for damages as a remedy is paid.
Tax laws: When an individual violates any payment in regards to tax
Sports laws: It deals with rules and regulations to be followed regarding a particular sport or game.
Trademark laws: If a person infringes or copy someone elseâ€™s trademark for which he has no authority to do so is liable to pay compensation under trademark laws.
Also, the list goes on; under civil laws, the punishment was given to the offender is to compensate the victim for the injury caused. The award can be in the form of reimbursement for the loss of wages, compensation for damages caused to the property, and so on.
Criminal law can consist of laws related to personal crimes, crime against property, inchoate and statutory crimes, etc.
Personal crimes are crimes that result in mental or physical harm to a person, e.g.:- rape, murder, assault, battery, child abuse, and so on.
Crime against property are crimes that interfere with the enjoyment of oneâ€™s right to their property; it leads to deprivation of the use of oneâ€™s property, such as theft, robbery, dacoity, and so on.
Inchoate crimes are related to abetment, aiding, conspiracy, or attempt to commit a crime against others.
Statutory crimes are said to be crimes related to traffic crimes like causing accidents under the influence of alcohol or drugs, financial or white-collar crimes mostly done by the elite people of society, or the people who abuse their power against the weaker section of the society.
Under these crimes, the convicted person is punished as per the criminal laws of a society in a state or a nation. The punishment can be in terms of imprisonment, or fine, or both. The duration of imprisonment and the amount of fine depend upon the severity of the crime committed.
Difference between Civil Law and Criminal Law:
Civil and criminal laws are different in many aspects; the differences are as follows:
Criminal law deals with the offenses committed against society at large and are graver. In contrast, civil laws deal with the offenses committed against a person and do not affect society.
Under criminal law, the punishment is given to set an example of the criminal, deter him from committing the offense again, reform the perpetrator by eradicating the evil, and taking care of society. Whereas the punishment under civil law is in terms of compensation or reimbursement to be paid to the victim or individual, the offenses are not so serious and do not affect the community.
Under criminal law, the accused’s guilt must be proved beyond a reasonable doubt; it is done to minimize the risk of an innocent person being punished. Whereas under civil law, the burden of proof is on the plaintiff.
Under criminal laws, the crimes are tried in criminal Courts, whereas under civil laws, the injuries are tried in civil courts.
A person or accused to be punished under criminal law must have committed the crime with malice or criminal intention. It is an essential ingredient under criminal law, which is not an essential element under civil law; an injury under civil law is to put the victim as far as possible.
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