The protodermal region of primary meristem

Certain vascular plants produce protoderm from primary meristem. This region is also called dermatogen. The epidermis is differentiated from the outermost layer of protoderm and protects the plant. The neighboring ground meristem (primary meristem) differentiates into central ground tissues.

The epidermis is the outermost skin layer that is found in flowers, leaves, stems, and roots in plants. This layer generates a boundary between the plant and its external environment that protects the excess loss of water from the plant.

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The epidermal layer also regulates the exchange of gas (oxygen and carbon dioxide), the production of secondary metabolites, and also induces water and minerals absorption. The epidermis in leaves contains two regions such as 1) adaxial (upper layer), and 2) abaxial (lower layer) surfaces. These regions are differentially constructed and possess different physiological functions.

In woody plants, the other stem parts such as tubers (potato) produce the secondary covering called periderm. The peridermal region replaces the epidermis as a protective covering.

The procambium region of primary meristem:
This is a differentiated tissue of the primary meristem that provides primary tissues of the vascular system. The continuous cylinder of meristematic cells (cambium proper) is responsible for the generation of new vascular tissue in shoot and root systems.

It contains a region called cork cambium (also called phellogen). Phellogen produces a protective layer in the stem barks that lies adjacent inside the protoderm and differentiates into xylem and phloem bundles (primary bundles).

The procambium also produces cork cambium and vascular cambium and the secondary meristems. The cork’s cambium differentiates further into phelloderm and phellem (cork). All three layers constitute the procambium. The root system of certain plants is differentiated into pericycle and produces lateral roots in eudicot plants.

The ground meristem region of primary meristem:
The ground meristem is generally found in a plant other than the regions of dermal and vascular tissues. The ground meristem fills soft regions of the plants, such as 1) pith, 2) cortex, and 3) pericycle. The ground tissue is made up of three types of tissues, such as 1) parenchyma, 2) sclerenchyma, and 3) collenchyma.

The ground meristems are classified based on the nature, composition, and morphology of the cell wall. The parenchyma cells have thin primary cells. These cells exist alive even the plants mature over some time. They are the filler cells of the ground tissues. The parenchyma cells in the shoot system are found in the regions of the pith and cortex.

Whereas, in roots, they complete the root cortex region. Parenchyma forms the left mesophyll tissues. These cells are also found in seed endosperm and fruit pulp. The parenchyma cells regulate photosynthesis, food storage, and secretion.

The collenchyma cells thicken the primary cell wall, whereas, sclerenchyma cells make up the secondary cell wall. The sclerenchyma cells form a secondary cell wall between the plasma membrane and primary cell wall. During plant maturation, sclerenchyma cells die, hence, the cell wall is lignified. Both collenchyma and sclerenchyma cells provide mechanical support to the plant and maintain the structural integrity of the plant cells.

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