Chiral & Achiral molecules
Jean-Baptist Biot, in 1815, had reported molecular chirality for the first time by the discovery of the rotation of plane-polarized light by passing the light through sugar solution. A molecule can be chiral when :
Chiral means asymmetric in such a way that the structure and its mirror image are not superimposable.
They are asymmetric molecules with one or more stereocentres.
Symmetric elements (a plane of symmetry, center of inversion, axis-symmetry) must have not present in the molecule.
Chiral molecules can rotate the plane-polarized light clockwise or anticlockwise direction.
The two non-superimposable mirror images are called enantiomers and are also known as optically active compounds. They are capable of rotating the plane of polarized light.
A molecule is said to be achiral when:
Molecules are always symmetric at every center in such a way that the structure and the mirror image are superimposable over each other.
Molecules cannot rotate the plane-polarized light in any direction.
At least one of the symmetry elements must be present in the achiral molecule that are briefly discussed below:
Plane of Symmetry: It is an imaginary plane passing through an object dividing it so that one half is the mirror image of the other half.
Centre of Symmetry: It is a point that is situated in such a way that the identical compounds are located on the opposite sides and equidistant from that point along the axis passing through it.
Achiral molecules are identical and optically inactive molecules that do not rotate plane-polarized light.
Meso compounds are the example of achiral molecules.
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