Transcription and preparation of the mRNA

Transcription is the mechanism by which the genetic information in DNA is transformed into RNA. Here the genetic material from the nucleus which is the DNA is read by an enzyme called RNA polymerase which then forms RNA in the antiparallel direction which is called the primary transcript. The freshly coded mRNA has a lot of junk sequences which are called the introns, these introns are to be removed, and thus this mRNA goes through a process called splicing. And then chemical groups are added to the 5’ and 3’ end of the mRNA called 5’ cap and poly-A tail which assists the mRNA in transportation and Recognition at the ribosome to initiate translation.

Translation: Components involved in translation:
Ribosome: the most important organelle required for the process of translation. The ribosome is a small organelle that consists of two subunits one small and one big subunit made up of RNA and proteins. These subunits latch onto the mRNA and then proceed with the process of translation. Ribosomes are found free-floating in the cytosol and some of them are found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

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mRNA: this is the component that exactly codes for the protein which is to be synthesized. As we know Ribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid whose nitrogenous bases are taken as triplets forms a codon, and each triplet combination would code for one of 20 amino acids.

tRNA: tRNA or Transfer RNA is a nucleic acid that syncs the mRNA to its consecutive amino acid. These molecules transport the amino acids across the cytoplasm to the site of replication within the ribosome and then connect the amino acid with the corresponding codon in the mRNA. The tRNA has a side that attaches to the amino acid and another side has the codon corresponding to that present in the mRNA.

Translation factors: They are protein that helps or guides all the other components do what they are supposed to do. These factors are separated into three types based on when they are put to work.

Initiation factor: The set of proteins does tasks such as identifying the initiation codon or start codon tRNA (f-met-tRNA) activating the smaller subunit and joining the mRNA with the smaller subunit by hydrolysis using GTP.

Elongation factor: these sets of proteins proceed with the elongation of the mRNA by creating peptide bonds with the amino acids which are transported by the tRNA, eventually increasing the length of the protein.

Termination Factor: These proteins senses the presence of the stop codon, UAG, UGA, and UAA and then detach the protein from the site of translation

The sequence of events occurs:
mRNA leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pore and one of many ribosomes floating in the cytoplasm captures the mRNA and then attaches to the initiation codon or start codon AUG which is the translation site.

The initiation factors like IF1, IF2, and IF3, assemble with the mRNA, two ribosomal subunits, and the f-met-aminoacyl tRNA to the A-site of the ribosomes and then start the process.

During the process of initiation, the f-met tRNA occupies the site according to the triplet codon direction and further amino acid is added which is specified by the codon to grow the peptide chain.

The peptidyl –t-RNA occupies the P site where the t-RNA carries the synthesized amino acids chain and then the free t-RNA moves to the next E site called the empty site when it is about to depart the ribosome.

Then the elongation factors take over and they continue by bringing the corresponding tRNA to the codons present in the mRNA and continue constructing the polypeptide, by bringing the tRNA coding for the codons in the amino acid and then using peptide bonds to join these amino acids one after the other, to form the protein.

Once the stop codon enters the A –site and terminates the process. The free mRNA and the tRNA complex detach and available for the next translation or protein synthesis. This further causes the cleavage of the polypeptide chain from the tRNA complex by the release factor and transported for its sorting.

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