Carbon dioxide gas is produced as the end product in the process of cell respiration. This carbon dioxide from the cell diffuses into the blood in exchange with the carbon dioxide from the cells to diffuse into the blood in exchange with the oxygen of blood under normal resting conditions. About a hundred mL of the blood receives 3.7 mL of carbon dioxide.Carbon dioxide gas is transported by both plasma and the hemoglobin of blood. The transportation of carbon dioxide gas occurs in three ways: first in the form of carbonic acid, second as in the form of bicarbonate, and last in the form of carboxyhemoglobin. When carbon dioxide combines with the water, it forms carbonic acid. About seven percent of all the carbon dioxide that is only 0.3 mL of carbon dioxide, which is about 2.4 ml.per decilitre in the arterial blood and about 2.7 ml. per decilitre in venous blood. It is transported through the blood as carbonic acid, and it makes the blood slightly acidic. The formation of the carbonic acid in the blood is catalyzed by the zinc-activated enzyme (carbonic anhydrase), which is stimulated by the low partial pressure of oxygen.
Bicarbonates of Sodium and Potassium
Nearly seventy percent of the carbon dioxide gas is transported through the body tissues to the lungs in the form of sodium and potassium bicarbonates. Most of the carbonic acid formed inside the erythrocyte dissociates into the hydrogen ions and the carbonate ions. Most of the bicarbonate ions diffuse into the plasma. To maintain the electroneutrality, an equal amount of chloride ions diffuse into the plasma. The exchange of the bicarbonate ions of the red blood cells and the chloride of plasma is known as chloride shift. This chloride shift is also called the Hamburger shift. This shift occurs due to due to bicarbonate-chloride carrier protein.
About twenty to twenty-five percent of carbon dioxide is transported in the form of the carbaminohemoglobin. This carbhemoglobin molecule is formed due to the reversible combination of the carbon dioxide with the amino group of the globin part of hemoglobin. Its formation is favored by the high partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and low partial pressure of carbon dioxide gas. . The bicarbonates, carbonic acid, and the carbaminohemoglobin are the reversible compounds. All these are formed at the cellular level in the presence of the low partial pressure of oxygen and low acidic hemoglobin. These compounds dissociate at the lungs, where conditions are opposite. The higher partial pressure of the oxygen favors the carbonic anhydrase enzyme to dissociate the carbonic acid and more acidic oxyhemoglobin. Carbon dioxide becomes free to be exchanged with the oxygen of fresh air.
Electrolyte balance in the urine formation is important because some of the electrolytes which are essential for the body. Tubular secretion and the tubular reabsorption maintain the electrolytic balance. Some of the ions like sodium ion, potassium ions, and chloride ions are reabsorbed in the descending limb of the loop of Henle.
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