Carbon dioxide is regarded as a waste product obtained in the process of aerobic respiration. But it also plays a crucial role in maintaining the pH of the blood. There are three ways in which carbon dioxide is transported in the blood. They are:
1. Carbamino compounds- 30% of the total carbon dioxide present in the body is transported in the form of Carbamino compound. When carbon dioxide is present in high concentration, it binds to the amino acids as well as with the amine group of the hemoglobin to produce carbaminohemoglobin.
2. HCOâ‚ƒâ» ions- The formation of bicarbonate ion does approximately 60% of the transportation of carbon dioxide in the red blood cell through carbonic anhydrase that catalyzes the formation of carbonic acid that divides into hydrogen and bicarbonate ion.
3. Dissolved in the plasma- 10% of the carbon dioxide is transported by dissolving in the blood plasma. And the concentration of gas dissolved in the plasma is dependent upon the solubility as well as the partial pressure of the gas, and carbon dioxide is highly soluble in water. It possesses partial pressure of about 40 mmHg.
Haldane and Bohr Effect
The Haldane effect was described by John Scott Haldane. It describes how the concentration of oxygen could regulate the hemoglobin affinity for carbon dioxide. If the concentration of oxygen is low, then the loading of carbon dioxide over the hemoglobin is enhanced. Oxygenation of the blood in the lungs displaces the carbon dioxide molecules from the hemoglobin that result in enhanced elimination of carbon dioxide by the lungs.
The Bohr Effect is defined as how carbon dioxide, as well as hydrogen ion, affects the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. If the concentration of hydrogen ion and carbon dioxide is high, then the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is reduced, whereas if their concentration is low, then the affinity for oxygen is high.
These effects modify the shape of the hemoglobin molecule due to which there is an increase in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen in the lungs while a decrease in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen at body tissues. This phenomenon causes uptake of oxygen from the lungs and release of oxygen at different body tissues.
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