There are many types of stamens according to the cohesion among themselves and adhesion with the flower. When the stamens are united in one bundle by the fusion of their filaments and the anthers use to be free, they are called monadelphous. If the stamens group into two bundles, it is diadelphous; in more than two bundles, they are called polyadelphous. If both the anthers and the filaments are fused, the stamens are called synandrous. If the filaments and the anthers both are free and indefinite in number, they are called polyandrous. Based on the adhesion of the stamens within the flower, it can also be of many types. In some flowers, the stamens are attached to the petals and appear to arise from them. If the stamens adhere to the carpels with any parts, they are said to be gynandrous. If the stamens are smaller than the corolla, they are said to be didynamous.
Structure and Development of the Stamens:
The stamens are modified leaves concerned with the production of microspores or the pollen grains. In the majority of angiosperms, each stamen has a bilobed anther. Each lobe of the anther has two pollen sacs or the microsporangia. Such an anther is called bithecus. However, in certain families, the anthers are monothecus.
Anther lobes are composed of two pollen sacs, and these sacs lie at the four terminals of the anther. The differentiation of the cells named archesporial marks the beginning of the development of these two pollen sacs. These cells differentiate to produce the subepidermal primary layer along with an inner sporogenous layer. The further division of this primary layer produces a diploid sporogenous tissue. The cells of this tissue divide and start functioning as diploid microsporocytes. These microsporocytes undergo the process of meiosis to produces tetrads that geminate inside the microsporangium to form mature pollen grains.
Dehiscence of the Anther
Inside the mature pollen sacs, the pollen grains dry up and become powdery. The tapetum becomes absorbed, and the anthers dry up. The sterile partition walls between the two pollen sacs of an anther lobe destroy forming a single chamber. Thus, a mature bilobed anther has only two chambers. At the time of the dehiscence of the anther, the anther lobes rupture at the region of stomium, thus, dispersing the pollen grains. A pollen grain is a partly germinated microspore representing the male gametophyte.
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