Adipocytes or fat cells store fat and act as a reserve of the cellâ€™s energy source. They secrete protein adipokines and are located in brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue. The proteins that are secreted from adipocytes are called adipokines. White fat cells (WAT) are composed of a single large lipid droplet that is enclosed by a layer of cytoplasm. This type of fat is mainly composed of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters, and the fat is stored in a semi-liquid state. These cells secrete different varieties of proteins such as resistin, adiponectin, leptin, and apelin. In contrast, brown fat cells (BAT) contain many lipid droplets scattered throughout the cells amidst the cytosol. It is rich in mitochondria, and hence appears brown, where it serves as a source of hair production and is also known as baby fat.
Depending on the regions where fat is accumulated, it is termed sub-cutaneous, visceral, and abdominal fat. Subcutaneous fat is the fat deposited underneath the skin, while visceral fat is the fat surrounding the organs such as the heart, liver, and kidneys, while abdominal fat is the one that is present around the belly. In obesity, all three are shown to increase in size and secrete hormones; however, abdominal fat is considered as more biologically active that disrupts the functioning of adipose hormones significantly.
Mechanism of Fat Development and Obesity Progression
WAT is the site of energy storage, while BAT is the site of energy expenditure; therefore, in addition to the balance between food consumption and caloric utilization, the balance between WAT and BAT is important in determining the onset and development of obesity.
The increase in weight of an individual is majorly due to two reasons; increased size of fat cells and the number of fat cells in the adipose tissue. In general, the number of fat cells remains the same after reaching adulthood, and then on, they start increasing in size depending on calorie consumption. A normal adult contains around 30 billion fat cells that weigh around 13-14 kg. When the fat deposition increases, the fat cells (WAT) bulge up to 4-6 times than their initial size. Once they reach the maximum size, they enter into the division phase and start increasing their population. These two are the actual causes of weight gain by an individual. The fat cells can undergo shrinkage; however, physical exercise and medication can reduce the volume of the fat cell but not the number of cells. Therefore, avoiding the accumulation of fat and increase in size is an important step to decrease the weight.
In addition, the ghrelin hormone signals the brain to initiate satiety signaling the body to stop eating. In the case of excess adipose fat, the hormonal signaling is disrupted that results in more and more eating leading to a further increase in the size of fat cells.
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