Blood circulation is a continuous process; we start from the deoxygenated blood collected from the veins that drain into the right atrium. From the right atrium, the blood reaches the right ventricle and flows into the pulmonary artery through the heart muscles’ contraction. The deoxygenated blood from the pulmonary artery reaches the lungs, where the carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen during respiration through diffusion in the alveoli’s capillaries. The oxygenated blood reaches back to the heart’s left side through the pulmonary vein that drains into the left atrium. From the left atrium, it enters the left ventricle and leaves the center from the aorta to the rest of the body. The oxygen in the blood is utilized by the body’s cells, and the deoxygenated blood leaves the tissues through the veins and reaches the right heart. This cycle continues, and the blood circulation is maintained continuously.
The cardiac cycle is defined as the cycle of events that includes the heart’s electrical and mechanical functions that take place from the beginning of one heartbeat to the next one. The cardiac cycle mainly focuses on the blood flowing events taking place in the center. It consists of two periods called the atrial cycle and the ventricular cycle.
The atrial cycle consists of two phases: Atrial systole and atrial diastole.
1. Atrial systole: It refers to the contraction of the atrium to squeeze blood to the ventricles. Before atrial systole, the atrioventricular valves are open, and blood has filled 75% in the ventricles. The atrial systole supplies the remaining 25%.
2. Atrial Diastole: In this phase, the atrium relaxes, and the AV valves shut. The blood starts filling in the atrium at this phase. This phase coincides with the ventricular systole phase.
This is the second phase of the cardiac cycle and involves the ventricles’ changes during the cardiac cycle. It contains two aspects- Ventricular systole and ventricular diastole.
1. Ventricular systole: It refers to the contraction of the ventricles to eject blood out of the heart. It consists of two phases:
i) Phases of isovolumic contraction: In this phase, the AV valves are closed, and semilunar valves are not opened yet, and the blood in the ventricles remains the same. The ventricles start contracting and till it begins, the semilunar valves.
ii) The phase of ventricular ejection: Once the pressure inside the ventricles increases, the blood is ejected out of the heart to the aorta and the pulmonary artery.
2. Ventricular diastole: This phase refers to the relaxation of the ventricles after ejection. It consists of five steps:
i) Protodiastole: The intraventricular pressure decreases and causes the semilunar valves to shut down.
ii) Isovolumic relaxation: Here, the semilunar valves are closed, and the AV valves have not yet opened, causing a constant volume inside the ventricles.
iii) Rapid passive filling phase: The AV valves are opened, and the atrium’s blood passively fills inside the ventricles.
iv) Reduced filling and diastasis: The rate of blood flow decreases, but blood flow occurs slowly. Almost 75% of blood is drained in these two phases
v) Last rapid filling phase: This phase coincides with atrial systole,and the remaining 25% of blood is removed in the ventricles.
The same cycle repeats from the atrial period to the ventricle cycle,and blood moves continuously in the heart.
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