It is one of the concepts in operant conditioning; a kind of associative learning, punishment is defined as the suppression of behavior. It may also be referred to as a change in the behavior of an individual that also leads to a reduction in the chance of recurring the same behavior later in the future. It simply eliminates the undesired behavior of people. This concept is often overlapped with the term called negative reinforcement. However, they are not the same and canâ€™t be used interchangeably. Punishment involves the reduced chance of recurring behavior whereas negative reinforcement increased the chance of recurring behavior.
Types of Punishment
There are two forms of punishment:: negative penalties and positive penalties.
Negative Punishments: such punishments involve the presentation of some awful stimulus when an undesired behavior is shown by a person foe instances a mother scolding her child while misbehaving in front of guests
Positive Punishments: such punishment involves the removal of something good when an undesired behavior is displayed by a person. For instance, a father will take away a newly gifted video game from his son because of scoring low in exams.
Different Views or Approaches Regarding Toilet Training
Many psychologists have put forward their description regarding the stages of development in which toilet training is one of the essential and inevitable processes. For instance, S. Freud has demonstrated 5 psychosexual stages of development oral; anal; phallic; latency, and genital stage. Where the anal stage of psychosexual development is directly linked to offspringâ€™s awareness regarding the retraining and retaining of the bowl and gaining pleasure and gratification by urinating fesses. This stage remains from 18 months to the end of 3 years of age. It is said that if a child gets fixated on receiving the satisfaction by retaining fesses then with the result he may become obsessed with controlling, perfection, and cleanliness. This is called anal retention however if a child becomes anal repulsive in this stage then he maybe later become disorganized and confused. Erikson has also demonstrated toilet training in his second psych social developmental stage. Where toilet training is one of the most aspects or processes. The child feels like being responsible enough to feed himself. Retain bowl, dress up on his own. This stage remains for 2 years.
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